Technology

How Hyperloop Station Works? A Technology of Advance World

Hyperloop Station | A Mode of Transportation:

A Hyperloop Station is a mode of transportation that is new to the society. It helps a train to move in a vacuum environment at transonic speed. In other words çeirir ( language) , a hyperloop can describe as a tube system with reduced air pressure that makes the pod travel with no friction.

These hyperloop stations are not developing yet, but many companies work on this to make it accurate. The trains will move in a tunnel. It can be underground or above the surface.

Also, hyperloop can transport objects and people at low pressure. That is why Passengers can travel at a speed of above 700 miles per hour. And it helps to reduce the time travel of approximately 1500 km compared to the regular transportation system.

hyperloop station, high speed
hyperloop station

History of Hyperloop Station:

From 2012 to 2013, Tesla and SpaceX worked together to make an engineering group on the hyperloop station.

In 2012, Elon Musk first used this concept, calling it the 5th mode of transport.

On the other hand, In 2015, SpaceX declared that a track to test the pods would build. It would be 1.6 kilometers long. After that, many companies and students work to achieve the goal of the hyperloop station.

Since then, many “Hyperloop Pod Competitions” have been held. And the first test passenger of hyperloop technology was in 2020.

Main Components:

Hyperloop station includes the following main components:

  • Tube
  • Pod or capsule
  • Pylon

Tube: 

It is enormous, reduces pressure, sales system, and of steel. As well as, the pillars support it, and solar systems are used to generate power in these tubes.

Pod or Capsule:

The pods are the same as the train bogies. As well as, they are traveling in the controlled environment of the tube. A pod can carry a total of 28 passengers at a time. The pod levitated with the help of magnets.

Pylon:

Pylons constructed that helps to support the tubes. So, they are to constrain the lines vertically and reduce the risks caused by earthquakes.

Working:

A series of permanent magnets or electromagnets attached on the top or the bottom of the pod. It helps the pod lift up from the tracks slightly. So, the interests make a special arrangement to produce a magnetic field on one side and relatively reduce it on the other side.

Hyperloop station systems work on the principle that is based on “magnetic levitation.” 

Pumps that operate as exchangers have been employed in this system. So, they fitted on the outside of the jacket and remove the air. Moreover, the reduced-pressure tube utilizes electric propulsion to move the pot progressively. Indeed, magnetic levitation is a crucial principle for the pod to travel along the paths. Low aerodynamic drag used so that the pod moves at airline speed.

hyperloop station, high speed
hyperloop station

How does a Pod Work?

The pods are driving forward by the linear induction motor, according to the principle of magnetic levitation. With this linear induction engine, the pods transferred at subsonic velocity from one spot to another. The subsonic speed is lower than the sound speed.

One of the essential uses of energy in highest-speed travel is to overcome the resistance of air. That is why the same thing has done by airliners that climb up to high altitudes and travel through less dense air to create the same effect at lower altitudes.

The pods enclosed in the low-pressure tube. Airline speed is using so that the pod moves and remains on the ground.

How is the Hyperloop Station Get Power?

Solar panels are now using in hyperloop stations. These solar systems help to generate energy so that the pods are self-powered. Enough energy is saved and stored in batteries so that the pods can efficiently work at night or day with the cloudy weather. Compressed air is also the form of energy stored in the batteries to run off the pods smoothly.

Air in the pods acts as a cushion so that the pods do not collide in the tube. There is no external power source required for magnetic levitation. It reduces the overall requirement of power. If any power failure occurs, magnetic levitation ensures that the pod is levitated until it slowly comes to a stop.

Critical Issue:

One of the most critical issues in hyperloop stations that can not be overlooked is aerodynamic limitations such as aerodynamic drag. When something moves in an enclosed and confined system, pain becomes one of the most significant analytical factors that running object. It is when the object moves at a very high speed.

Following are the two essential reasons that cause drag to occur:

  • Mainly blocked flow occurs when the number of Mach (ratio of body speed to the sound rate in the surrounding medium) reaches its critical level. 
  • The other is the existence of shock waves that are recorded at supersonic velocities.

Ways to Reduce the Aerodynamic Drag:

The two methods that are proposed to reduce the significant amount of drag that occurred due to choked flow and shocked waves are the following:

  • We are increasing the obstruction rate (BR). The blocking ratio (BR) is between the cross-section of the tube and the cross-sectional region of the pod. Moreover, a considerable volume of air is supplied between the box and capsule, which reduces the flow velocity around the pod.
  • compressor or pump is installed at the front of the pod to produce a similar effect.

These two methods are used to reduce the choked flow and shock waves to reduce the aerodynamic drag.

Effects of Temperature on Aerodynamic Drag:

The effect of temperature on this high speed was not considered a new mode of transportation in previous case studies. But the temperature is having a remarkable impact on the aerodynamic drag. The temperature of the tube affects the following factors:

  • Speed of sound
  • Density
  • Viscosity

The tunnel temperature rises with the sound speed. It reduces the Mach number of the same pod speed, and so reduces the drag pressure. 

The severe choked flow can also be delay due to the increase in the temperature of the tube.

If the temperature outside the pod increases, this will cause more energy use so that the temperature inside the pod remains the same. Thus, the increased temperature of the tube is efficient in decreasing the aerodynamic drag.

hyperloop station, high speed
hyperloop station

Five main design factors:

There are five main parameters for the design of the hyperloop station system.

  1. Obstruction ratio (BR)
  2. The speed of the pod
  3. Pod length 
  4. The pressure of the tube
  5. The temperature of the tube

Well, different types of simulations over an ample framework space to analyze the aerodynamic drag on the capsule.

  1. (BR) Obstruction ratio ( 0.25, 0.36)
  2. The speed of the pod (50 to 350 meters per sec)
  3. Pod length (10.78 to 86 m)
  4. The pressure of the tube (101.325 to 1013.25 Pa) also equals 0.001 to 0.01 atm
  5. The temperature of the tube(275 to 325 K)

Designing the hyperloop station building:

To design and run a hyperloop station, engineers must consider the following parameters:

  1. Space or technical requirements
  2. Passenger or their luggage flow management
  3. Passenger traffic safety
  4. E-ticket and satellite navigations
  5. Functional requirements for a safety management system
  6. Renewable energy sources
  7. New technological developments

Estimated cost to build a hyperloop station:

The main cost that is required is dependent on the design and building of the tube network. It includes a tube, pylons, vacuum pumps, and the station. 

The estimated cost of the whole system is between 9 billion to 13 billion US dollars.

Following is the estimated total cost of the hyperloop system:

  • Pod structure: 10 million US dollars 
  • Propulsion: 5 million US dollars
  • Batteries and electronics: 6 million US dollars
  • Air compressor and plumbing: 11 million US dollars
  • Suspension and air bearings: 8 million US dollars
  • Tube construction: 650 million US dollars
  • Pylon construction: 2550 million US dollars
  • Tunnel construction: 600 million US dollars
  • Solar panel and batteries: 210 million US dollars
  • Station and vacuum pumps: 260 million US dollars
  • Permits and land: 1000 million US dollars

The above-estimated cost is for the 40 capsules of the hyperloop passenger transportation system.

Advantages:

There are many advantages of the hyperloop system in the long run, such as:

  • It is a new mode of transportation.
  • Hyperloop moves at a very high speed.
  • Resistant to earthquakes due to the use of towers.
  • Resistant to bad weather.
  • It requires low transportation costs as compared to the traditional rails in the long run.
  • As well as, It consumes low power and works on solar panels.
  • It can help to unlock significant economic benefits.
  • Convenience is another significant benefit for the passengers. About 20 to 30 passengers can travel in a single pod with relatively high speed and frequency, as pod or capsule launched after every 2 minutes or less.

Disdvantages:

Where there are advantages, there are drawbacks of any system as well.

  • The start-up cost of the hyperloop station system is relatively much higher. 
  • Technical cost is high.
  • Maintenance is hazardous.
  • There will be significant environmental effects because the installation will require much space and trees cut to build it.
  • The tracks are of steel. So, steel expands or contracts and changes its shape according to the temperature of its surroundings. It may affect the ways.
  • The space in the pods is short, so the passengers can not move quickly.
  • The capsules travel at a very high speed. Due to this, high speed (approximately the speed of the light) can cause vibration and hustle in the pod. It can make the passengers dizzy.

Effects of hyperloop transportation on energy resources:

This transportation system is energy efficient in many ways. A hypothetical case study required to estimate the energy savings. Moreover, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) considered a hyperloop station system of 300 miles that will carry 1500 passengers in a day. SO, the energy-saving per year calculated to be about 2.8 trillion BTU (British Thermal Unit) in 2030 or the energy demand of approximately 0.01 percent of national transportation.

This new mode of transportation can transport passengers from one place to another. It saves about 20 percent in energy. 

According to the United States Department of Energy, a hyperloop station system can be at least eight times less efficient in energy than water and rail transport.

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